Redating the gospels

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Jesus says to the sick man, Do you wish to get well?The sick man replies Sir, I have no man to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up, but while I am coming, another steps down before me" (John 5:6-7).Although 1 John does not have an attribution of authorship, the author writes as an elder, addressing his readers as little children (1 John 2:1, , , , 4:4, ).Many of these themes in 1-3 John are also present in the Gospel of John.2 John says Though I have many things to write to you, I do not want to do so with paper and ink; but I hope to come to you and speak face to face, while 3 John 13-14 has the remarkably similar I had many things to write to you, but I am not willing to write them to you with pen and ink; but I hope to see you shortly, and we will speak face to face.In both books the author rejoices over children walking in truth.

Despite the brevity of 2 and 3 John, many common ideas and phrases are obvious.

It would perhaps be best to first establish the case that the same author is responsible for all the books associated with John.

The New Testament books of John, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John and Revelation are sometimes called the Johannine literature and are traditionally assigned to John the son of Zebedee, one of the twelve disciples of Jesus.

However, this can probably be explained by the circumstances of writing.

John, the Galilean fisherman, would have learned Greek not as his mother tongue but as a second or third language.

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