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OTF j Mimage lmtla |,) \e OTF (O)/ (Equation 6) The OTF is a complex-valued function and difficult to interpret. veranyi) or Intevac Genll Sys image intensifier system and CCD video camera (C. Images that show how the counterilluminating animals appear from below (Fig. course much dimmer (far beyond the reach of printed paper) and can only be seen by the dark-adapted eye. References should be referred to in the text by number, and listed in the Literature Cited section in the order that they appear in the text. They will be charged the current cost of printers' time for corrections to these (other than corrections of printers' or editors' errors). The Biological Bulletin does not have page charges. The ligament attached to the base of the radular tooth (Fig.
Therefore, its magnitude, known as the modula- tion transfer function (MTF), is often also calculated. 2E, F) were created by combining the bioluminescence images with silhouettes of the animals obtained from nor- mal illumination photographs (taken immediately after the intensified images). Although observers in submersibles generally find mesopelagie squid with their fins folded and their arms and tentacles placed over their heads (Vecchione and Roper, 1991; Fig. this is may be a response to the perceived threat from the submersible. The intensified images are not perfect representations of the actual Counterillumination. Unlike references in Nature, references in the Research Notes section should conform in punctuation and arrangement to the style of recent issues of The Biological Bulletin. A Research Note will usually appear within two months after its acceptance. Manuscripts, including figures, should be submitted in quadruplicate, with the originals clearly marked. 1C, L fourth panels) moves freely in the proboscis lumen following impalement and therefore apparently does not participate in grasping of the impaled tooth by the proboscis (see supplemental material described in the legend to Fig. The proboscis acts as a hydrostatic skeleton that allows for coordinated movements in the absence of skeletal struc- tures (3).
A final, convenient implication of the convolution theorem is that the OTF of A meters of optically homogeneous water is equal to the OTF of I meter of water to the .v th power. The clade includes a lichen symbiont (Coccoinyxci glaroneiisis). MILLER TATSUO MOTOKAWA YOSHITAKA NAGAHAMA SHERRY D. Woods Hole Hunter College, City University of New York University of California, Davis Center of Aquaculture-IRTA, Spain Bodega Marine Lab., University of California, Davis Louisiana State University Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Univ. Stanford University Auburn University, Alabama Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston Scripps Inst. 2: OCTOBER 2004 RESEARCH NOTES Schulz, Joseph R., Alex G. Gilly The projectile tooth of a fish-hunting cone snail: Conus catus injects venom into fish prey using a high- speed ballistic mechanism 77 Koike, Kazuhiko, Mitsuru Jimbo, Ryuichi Sakai, Masami Kaeriyama, Koji Muramoto, Takehiko Ogata, Tadashi Maruyama, and Hisao Kamiya Octocoral chemical signaling selects and controls dinoflagellate symbionts 80 SYMBIOSIS AND PARASITOLOGY Lewis, Louise A., and Gisele Muller-Parker Phvlogenetic placement of "zoochlorellae" (Chloro- phvta), algal svmbiont of the temperate sea anemone Anthopteura elegantissima 87 DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION Santagata, Scott A waterborne behavioral cue for the actinotroch lai-va of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) produced by Upogehin pugettensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea) 103 Francis, Lisbeth Microscaling: why larger anemones have longer cni- dae I Hi Kramer, Andrew, and Lisbeth Francis Predation resistance and nematocyst scaling for Metridium senile and M. Moneypenny Evidence for a common pattern of peptidergic inner- vation of cnidocytes 141 Mc Donald, Kathryn Patterns in early embryonic motility: effects of size and environmental temperature on vertical velocities of sinking and swimming echinoid blastulae 93 Abstracts from the 2004 General Scientific Meetings of the Marine Biological Laboratory 147 Notice to Subscribers 2005 SUBSCRIPTION RATES FOR THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN Prices include print and online versions Per year (six issues, two volumes): Per volume (three issues): Back and single issues (subject to availability): Libraries 0.00 0.00 $ 75.00 Individuals 0.00 .00 .00 For additional information, please contact our subscription administrator at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543; tel: (508) 289-7402; e-mail: [email protected] THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, Marine Biological Laboratory. Subscription per year (six issues, two volumes): 5 for libraries; 0 for individuals. Copyright 2004, by the Marine Biological Laboratory Periodicals postage paid at Woods Hole, MA, and additional mailing offices. This study is supported in part by a Study-In-Aid for Scientific Re- search (B) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science, Japan to H.
and OTF eve are the optical transfer functions of the water and eye respectively. Thus, the identity of the green symbionts within Antlioplenm and their relationship with freshwater algae are in question. The results suggest that these symbionts are members of a well-supported but highly divergent clade comprising species of small, spherical green algae both symbiotic and free-living which are distinct from species of Chorellci in freshwater. GIBSON LAURA RELTER The Whitney Laboratory, University of Florida Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston California Institute of Technology Georgia State University University of Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory ENSR Marine & Coastal Center. Japan National Institute for Basic Biology, Japan Marine Biomed. of Texas Medical Branch University of Maine, Orono University of California, Santa Barbara University of New England, Biddeford, Maine University of California, Los Angeles Managing Editor Assistant Managing Editor Staff Editor Subscription & Advertising Administrator Published by MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY WOODS HOLE, MASSACHUSETTS VOLUME 207, No. Subscriptions and similar matter should be addressed to Subscription Administrator. Subscription includes both print and online journals. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543. receptor and ion chan- nel targets, and drug design: 50 million years of neuropharmacology. KOIKE ET AL Science Laboratory ( AMSL) for access to their collection of specimens. Lirdwitayaprasit Thaithaworn, Chulalongkorn University, and Dr. Setsuko Sakamoto, National Research Institute of Fisheries and En- vironment of Inland Sea, for supplying cultures. PDF files are available beginning in February 1990 (Volume 178, Number 1), some abstracts are available beginning with the October 1976 issue (Volume 151, Number 2), and some Tables of Contents are online beginning with the October 1965 issue (Volume 129, Number 2). brasiliensis) have many small photophores that evenly illu- minate the ventral surface, most have a smaller number of isolated photophores that produce uneven illumination U'.,t,.. To inves- tigate this problem, the effects of the intervening water and the viewer's visual acuity on the perceived image of the counterillumination must be understood. Introduction Successful larval settlement is critical to the long-term stability of benthic populations and communities. Once in or near such sites, successful settlement requires appropriate behavioral responses by larvae to reach or get very near the substratum and remain there long enough to complete metamorphosis. By videotaping swimming larvae through a microscope, we were able to monitor the behavior of the cilia, velar lobes, and foot of an individual larva as it entered and exited water containing different concentrations of cue from P. High- magnification video recordings of swimming larvae were made possible by tethering larvae in the field of view of a microscope while exposing them to the same rate of water movement relative to their bodies that they would experi- ence when swimming freely. obs.) where our animals were caught, and in Maine (S. While our results do not directly show that the circatidal activity rhythms observed in L. The Marine Biological Laboratory is an Affirmative Action/Equal Employment Opportunity Employer Convinced Axibvert 200 Apo Tome. Developed to provide distinct optical sections, Apo Tome offers crucial advantages in fluorescence microscopy of thick specimens - enhanced image quality, greater sharpness, more contrast and optical resolution in the axial direction. Biological Bulletin publishes outstanding experimental research on the full range of biological topics and organisms, from the fields of Neurobiology, Behavior, Physiology, Ecology, Evolution, Development and Reproduction, Cell Biology, Biomechanics, Symbiosis, and Systematics. In our model, lectin stored in the nematocyst of the coral (5) is probably released when algal cells are introduced to the gastric cavity and the microalgae are then chemically se- lected by their varying responses to lectin; that is. Interestingly, our observation of the discrete effects of SLL-2 on different types of algae suggests that further selection may occur among the different clades of Symbio- ilininm. plast large subunit (23S) r DNA sequence (DDBJ Accession No. For these reasons, our experimental model is somewhat indirect tor assessing the chemical recognition that actually occurs between the host and the algae. Each issue will be placed online approximately on the date it is mailed to subscribers; therefore the online site will be available prior to receipt of your paper copy. By the time a paper is sent to the press, all nucleotide or aniino acid sequences and associated alignments should have been deposited in a generally accessible database (.. This study examines the effects of underwater light scat- tering and visual acuity on the perceived images of coun- terillumination signals. Plank- tonic larvae of benthic marine invertebrates are dispersed from their birth sites and depend on the vicissitudes of tides and currents to deliver them to suitable locations for recruit- Received 21 July 20(13; accepted . More than a half cen- tury of laboratory research has amply demonstrated that larvae from many different invertebrate phyla respond to chemical cues generated in the environment by settling in sites that are appropriate for successful metamorphosis, growth, and reproduction (reviewed by Hadtield, 1998; Hadfield and Paul. Induction of settlement and metamorphosis by natural external chemical cues has been demonstrated for species as diverse as cnidariuns U'.t;.. To translate cue-induced changes in the behavior of a tethered larva into differences in the velocities of untethered larvae, we also made and analyzed video recordings of larvae moving freely in aquaria filled with filtered seawater or seawater containing dissolved cue from P. Materials and Methods Culture of lan-ae for assays of behavior and metamorphosis Phestilla sibogae is continuously maintained in Had- field's laboratory at the University of Hawaii's Kewalo Marine Laboratory. polyphemus actu- ally entrain to LD cycles, the expression of the timing of these rhythms appears to at least be modulated by the LD cycle. Impressive ben- efits rounded off by higher performance and free choice of dyes. Published since 1897 by the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, The Biological Bulletin is one of America's oldest peer-reviewed scientific journals. the lectin is toxic to some nonsymbiotic algae as in the cases of G. In gorgonians, infection by several clades of Sym- OCTOCORAL LECT1N SELECTS SYMBIONTS " 83 cw Q "C 10pm *. Light micrographs from the video-captured images of Symbiodinium sp. Sakamoto at the National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea. However, the facts that the responses of Symbiodinium to the lectin varied significantly among the strains used and that the clade of Symbuxliniitm in S. The relation of diel patterns of cell division to diel patterns ot motilily in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Svinbioilininni microaih-iiiticiim Freudenthal in culture. The correct OTF for objects being viewed from below is obtained by normalizing the original OTF so that OTF(O) equals e~ (c ~ KLJ} * (Mertens, 1970). veranyi was collected at depth, using the Johnson-Sea-Link research submersible fitted with 1 1 -liter acrylic plastic cylinders with hydraulically activated, sliding lids. maderensis was col- lected at night, using an opening/closing Tucker trawl (4.3-nr opening, Vi inch knotless nylon mesh) fitted with a thermally insulated collecting container. (F) Counterillumination of C maderensis as viewed from below against the downwelling light. Background in (E) and (F) is set to the average brightness of the counterilluminating animal. The functional morphology of a ventral photophore from the mesopelagic squid, Abralia trigmuira. It should open with a summary paragraph of 150 to 200 words comprising the introduction and the conclusions. By the time a paper is sent to the press, all nucleotide or amino acid sequences and associated alignments should have been deposited in u generally accessible database (e.g., Gen Bank. Reprints normally will be delivered about 2 to 3 months after the issue date. (October 2004) 2004 Marine Biological Laboratory The Projectile Tooth of a Fish-Hunting Cone Snail: Conns catus Injects Venom Into Fish Prey Using a High-Speed Ballistic Mechanism JOSEPH R. able to retain control of the stung fish prey while retracting. Thus the final equation for the propagation of images viewed from below is image fina ,(.v) OTF, V ^linviop \.\ f -(c-Ku) . Specimens were manually stimulated to bioluminesce. and then were re- corded with a Dage ISIT image-intensified video camera (A. Panel B courtesy of Marine Biological Laboratory Digital Archive, Flescher Fish Collection. The rest of the text should continue on without subheadings, and there should be no more than 30 references. EMBL, Swiss Prot), and the sequence accession number should be provided. Authors will receive page proofs of articles shortly before publication. The paralyzed fish is then engulfed whole, thus completing the feeding sequence.